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    融资租赁与供应链金融是我国当前转型过程中,国家与企业共同的选择,其核心在于让金融由虚转实,回归金融本质,促进实体经济发展。

     

     

    两者间的差异

     

     

     

     

    01、主体不同

     

    融资租赁:融资租赁的业务主要是由融资租赁公司进行开展的。这些公司用自有资金向供应商采购承租方所需要的设备,然后租赁给承租人,赚取采购额与租金收入的差额。当然融资租赁业务也涉及到银行、保险公司、担保机构等其他金融或非金融类机构,但较少涉及供应链的成员企业。

     

    它是比较单一独立的经济实体。而且融资租赁公司的服务对象不限定在某一行业领域,只要对融资融物有需求的中小企业都可以成为服务对象。一般融资租赁行业未来的发展趋势有两个方向:一个是向大而全的融资租赁巨头方向发展,该类融资租赁公司会不断的扩大其业务领域,从传统的机械制造、船舶重工等领域向文化创意、农产品等领域进行扩张;另外一个发展方向就是向专业化的细分领域进行发展,深耕于某一细分行业,朝特色化融资租赁企业发展。

     

    随着融资租赁行业的发展,越来越多的融资租赁公司会出现在市场竞争当中,但社会的资本增量在短期内增幅不大,这就意味着大部分的融资租赁公司的规模不大,资产有限,市场当中除了少数的大型的融资租赁企业之外,大多数的融资租赁公司都是资产规模有限的中小型融资租赁公司。该类型的公司的发展方向就应该是发掘利基市场,深耕于某一细分行业。

     

    供应链金融:供应链金融主体是供应链当中的核心企业,核心企业的类型千差万别,不同的供应链其核心企业不一样。

     

    不同的供应链由不同的成员企业组成,拥有不同的核心企业,其供应链金融的业务主体便有了差别。供应链金融是银行等金融机构利用供应链核心企业的信用,由核心企业作为担保,向供应链当中的中小企业提供信用额度的一种融资模式。主要有存货融资、预付款融资、应收账款融资、应付账款融资等等。资金的提供方往往是银行等金融机构,担保方是供应链当中的核心企业,主要是通过给予一定的信用期限和信用额度来解决中小企业的融资难问题。

     

    在具体实践当中,银行等金融机构也是基于风险防控的考虑而仅选择某些行业来开展此项业务,比如钢铁、木材、汽车制造等行业。这些行业的一个共同点就是发展的较为成熟,产品的价值易于确定,产品也容易在交易市场变现。

     

    从这一点来看,融资租赁与供应链金融具有共同点,在行业领域的选择上都是优先考虑风险相对可控的行业,而绕开或暂时避开风险较大的行业。但两者的未来发展趋势都是向更多的业务领域进行扩张,不断开辟新的盈利空间。随着融资租赁公司、银行等金融机构在为中小企业进行金融服务方面的风险防控有较大改观的时候,会有更多的企业进入到风险较大的行业,比如文化创意产业。

     

    02、国家支持政策倾向不同


    融资租赁:融资租赁在国际上具有非常重要的地位,西方很多发达国家融资租赁已经成为了仅次于银行贷款的第二大融资渠道,市场规模巨大,同时发展历史悠久有比较成熟的经营范式,受到了各国的大力追捧。我国目前处于经济转型的关键时期,国家要激发广大民众的创业创新热情,必须加大金融支持的力度。而融资租赁在服务中小企业方面具有天然的优势,因此近期国家省市政府密集出台了很多支持政策。各地区又根据国家的大政方针制定出符合地区发展实际的细则,后续细则的出台会更好的促进融资租赁行业的发展。

     

    供应链金融:专门针对供应链金融支持的国家政策还比较少,有些政策会提及到要促进供应链金融的发展,比如在融资租赁相关的政策当中就提及了供应链金融。两者相比供应链金融的支持政策要比融资租赁少。少的原因在于供应链金融业务发展的时间较短,无论是银行等金融机构还是政府都处于摸索阶段,在没有探索清楚供应链金融发展特征模式的情况下冒然出台相关政策可能不利于该行业的发展。随着供应链金融的不断发展,相关问题会不断产生,国家会针对这些问题出台相应的政策。

     

    03、风险不同


    融资租赁:融资租赁公司通过购买融资标的物,再租赁给中小企业使用,通过收取租金的方式回本并赚取一定的收益。这些标的物往往是中小企业亟需的设施设备,这些设备能够给中小企业创造一定的价值,是中小企业赖以生存发展的重要物质基础,中小企业知道一旦违约,融资租赁公司将收回融资标的物,毕竟融资标的物的所有权属于融资租赁公司,收回之后对中小企业将造成致命的打击,没有了用于生产的设施设备企业就会停工甚至破产倒闭。

     

    因此,中小企业对待融资租赁公司相比供应链金融其主观违约意愿会比较低,因为其违约成本过高。正是基于这一点,承租方没有掌握融资标的物的所有权,融资租赁公司的风险才会小。同时融资租赁公司在审批项目的时候会比较谨慎,会将一些不符合其要求的中小企业排除在融资租赁服务之外,以减小风险。并且融资租赁是采用逐期归还租金的方式回款,融资租赁公司的回款有保证,只要企业不出现较大的危机,每期一次的租金收入就能够得到保证。

     

    供应链金融:对于供应链金融来说,无论存货质押融资还是应收账款融资银行等金融机构的风险都比较大。这些资金都是在产品售出之后企业有了实际收入时才会归还银行等融机构的贷款。虽然是封闭式信用贷款,但贷款的归还是来源于销售回款。而企业的销售情况具有很大的不确定性,这就给授信方带来了很大的风险。

     

    两者融合发展

     

    融资租赁和供应链金融都可以用来解决中小企业融资难问题,两者可以进行融合发展。

     

    因为供应链金融和融资租赁的最大受益方都是中小企业,而主要的资金来源也是来自于银行等金融机构。因此资金的来源以及资金的最终用途都是一致的,在这样的背景下,银行等金融机构可将融资租赁和供应链金融进行协调发展,以减少分块化发展所带来的交易成本大的问题产生。另外综合协调发展也能够减少银行等金融机构所面临的风险。

     

    融资租赁和供应链金融所面临的很多风险都是一致的。

     

    这些业务的发展都会受到经济环境的影响,比如市场疲软,则供应链金融和融资租赁业务都会受影响,产品销售不畅,对相应设备技术改造的意愿不强,即使企业有意愿但也没有实力去更新改造。这样融资租赁和供应链金融的融合发展就成为了一个发展趋势。站在银行等金融机构的角度,它们应该把握这样的发展机遇,尽早的将两者进行协调发展,探索它们协调发展背后的规律、可能遇到的问题,建立相应的协调机制和相关部门。当前金融业的竞争也越来越激烈,银行等金融机构迫切需要找到新的盈利模式,大胆创新是解决的方法之一。银行只有大胆的尝试,将融资租赁和供应链金融捆绑起来才能够开拓新的盈利空间。

     

    两者相互渗透

     

    01、融资租赁公司可以涉足供应链金融业务


    融资租赁公司采购融资标的物,再将标的物租赁给中小企业使用。站在中小企业的角度融资租赁公司就成为了实际意义上的供应商,而标的物的出售方是实际意义上的融资租赁公司的供应商。

     

    这样的关系结构符合传统供应链的组织架构。因此融资租赁公司就成为了供应链当中的一环。而有些融资租赁公司资金非常雄厚,可以被认为是供应链当中的核心企业。这样融资租赁公司可以像传统供应链当中的核心企业一样为下游的中小企业提供供应链金融服务。即租金也可以延期支付,租金提前归还可以有折扣。同时融资租赁公司可以将未来的租金收入进行质押向银行申请贷款。同时融资租赁公司可以为中小企业提供融资担保,让银行等金融机构直接给中小企业融资

     

    融资租赁公司不能仅仅把自己当成是一个资金的供给方,中小企业的服务者,而要把自己定位成中小企业的综合服务者。不仅提供资金的支持还提供一些咨询服务。融资租赁公司的未来发展方向会向综合性的中小企业服务商的方向发展,给中小企业提供从设备采购、融资、咨询等各种服务,承担起供应链集成服务商的角色。在这样的愿景下,融资租赁业务更需要和供应链金融进行融合发展。

     

    02、供应链金融可以向融资租赁业务进行延伸


    供应链金融发展同样非常迅速,但其发展也会遇到各种各样的问题。比如融资模式过多,融资参与方负责程序多等等。

    同样供应链金融业务当中起到核心作用的是供应链的核心企业,若供应链的核心企业不给中小企业提供融资担保,供应链金融业务就难以开展。

    银行对供应链金融业务的考虑不是针对供应链当中的一家企业而是整条供应链尤其是供应链当中的核心企业。

     

     

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